Fiber Optic Gyroscopes for Inertial Navigation

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Fiber Optic Gyroscopes for Inertial Navigation

To understand what inertial navigation is, we first need to break the phrase into two parts, that is, navigation + inertia.
Navigation, in simple terms, solves the problem of getting from one place to another, indicating the direction, typically the compass.
Inertia, originally derived from Newtonian mechanics, refers to the property of an object that maintains its state of motion. It has the function of recording the motion state information of the object.
A simple example is used to illustrate inertial navigation. A child and a friend play a game at the entrance of a room covered with tiles, and walk on the tiles to the other side according to certain rules. One forward, three left, five front, two right... Each of his steps is the length of a floor tile, and people outside the room can get his complete motion trajectory by drawing the corresponding length and route on the paper. He doesn't need to see the room to know the child's position, speed, etc.
The basic principle of inertial navigation and some other types of navigation is pretty much like this: know your initial position, initial orientation (attitude), the direction and direction of movement at each moment, and push forward a little bit. Add these together (corresponding to the mathematical integration operation), and you can just get your orientation, position and other information.
So how to get the current orientation (attitude) and position information of the moving object? You need to use a lot of sensors, in inertial navigation is the use of inertial instruments: accelerometer + gyroscope.
Inertial navigation uses gyroscope and accelerometer to measure the angular velocity and acceleration of the carrier in the inertial reference frame, and integrates and calculates the time to obtain the velocity and relative position, and transforms it into the navigation coordinate system, so that the carrier's current position can be obtained by combining the initial position information.
Inertial navigation is an internal closed loop navigation system, and there is no external data input to correct the error during the carrier movement. Therefore, a single inertial navigation system can only be used for short periods of navigation. For the system running for a long time, it is necessary to periodically correct the internal accumulated error by means of satellite navigation.

full text: https://www.ericcointernational.com/app ... ation.html
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